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Advances in health and medicine.
Marjorie Bekaert Thomas
Advances in health and medicine.
Men's Health Channel
Reported January 11, 2013

Male Birth Control -- Research Summary

BACKGROUND:  Half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended.  However, there are several effective methods of contraception available.  Since the year 2000, there have been many new methods of birth control in the U.S., including the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, the hormonal contraceptive ring, the patch, the 91-day regimen of oral contraceptives, the hormonal implant, and a new form of female sterilization.  The most popular method used by over ten million women in the US between 2006 and 2008, was the oral contraceptive pill. (Source:  However, male contraception is becoming more popular.

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT CONTRACEPTION:  Between 2006 and 2008, 99% of women who had ever had sexual intercourse had used at least one method of birth control.  Some interesting facts are:

  • 7.3% of women who were currently at risk of unintended pregnancy were not using a contraceptive method.
  • Hormonal implants for women are 99% effective.
  • Injections for women are 91-99% effective.
  • Both the pill and the patch for women are 91-99% effective.
  • Male condoms are 82-98% effective.  Female condoms are 79-95% effective.
  • Spermicides are 72-85% effective.
  • Female sterilization, trans cervical sterilization, and male sterilization are all over 99% effective. (Source:

TYPES OF MALE CONTRACEPTION:  The two most common male contraceptive methods are vasectomies and condoms.  They have obvious draw backs (not being reversible and condoms have a high failure rate).  A study found that over 60% of men in Spain, Brazil, Mexico, and Germany were willing to use a new method of male contraception.  A heat-based method could offer easily implemented birth control.  Researchers have used different sources of heat to disrupt fertility: hot water, incandescent light bulbs, saunas, and ultrasounds.  Optimal sperm production (spermatogenesis) requires temperatures to be below average body temperature.  By warming the testicles above average, it disrupts spermatogenesis.  RISUG is an option that is effective immediately right after injection procedures and lasts for ten years unless reversed.  (Source:

NEW TECHNOLOGY:  Oral contraceptives have been available for women since the 1960s, but for men this option has been limited.  Some have tried using testosterone to decrease sperm production, but they come with a list of side effects (acne, increase risk of heart disease and prostate cancer).  Spermatogenesis relies on vitamin A to allow the production of normal numbers of sperm.  Researchers are developing a way to use vitamin A metabolism in the testis to regulate spermatogenesis.  One recent study found that a compound that interferes with the body’s ability to use vitamin A made male mice sterile (they were receiving 8 to 16 week courses).  Once they stopped giving it to the mice, they resumed making sperm.  So far, the researchers have not found side effects and testosterone remained stable.  Another study is working with a drug that interferes with the action of an enzyme that converts vitamin A to its biologically active form in the testis, hoping it will render men temporarily sterile.  Testing is still under way.  (Source:   MORE

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